Detection of Deepfake Environmental Audio @ EUSIPCO

With the ever-rising quality of deep generative models, it is increasingly important to be able to discern whether the audio data at hand have been recorded or synthesized. Although the detection of fake speech signals has been studied extensively, this is not the case for the detection of fake environmental audio. We propose a simple and efficient pipeline for detecting fake environmental sounds based on the CLAP audio embedding. We evaluate this detector using audio data from the 2023 DCASE challenge task on Foley sound synthesis.

Our experiments show that fake sounds generated by 44 state-of-the-art synthesizers can be detected on average with 98\% accuracy. We show that using an audio embedding trained specifically on environmental audio is beneficial over a standard VGGish one as it provides a 10% increase in detection performance. The sounds misclassified by the detector were tested in an experiment on human listeners who showed modest accuracy with nonfake sounds, suggesting there may be unexploited audible features.

Correlation of Fréchet Audio Distance With Human Perception of Environmental Audio Is Embedding Dependent @ EUSIPCO

This paper explores whether considering alternative domain-specific embeddings to calculate the Fréchet Audio Distance (FAD) metric can help the FAD to correlate better with perceptual ratings of environmental sounds. We used embeddings from VGGish, PANNs, MS-CLAP, L-CLAP, and MERT, which are tailored for either music or environmental sound evaluation. The FAD scores were calculated for sounds from the DCASE 2023 Task 7 dataset. Using perceptual data from the same task, we find that PANNs-WGM-LogMel produces the best correlation between FAD scores and perceptual ratings of both audio quality and perceived fit with a Spearman correlation higher than 0.5. We also find that music-specific embeddings resulted in significantly lower results. Interestingly, VGGish, the embedding used for the original Fréchet calculation, yielded a correlation below 0.1. These results underscore the critical importance of the choice of embedding for the FAD metric design.